Effect Of Non-Availability of Text Books on Students’ Academic Performance at Primary School Level


  • Zohra Gul GGPS Ghari Qamar Din Peshawar.
  • Dr. Shakila Malik H/M Elementary & Secondary, Peshawar, Pakistan.


Access to appropriate learning resources is crucial for effective education, especially at the elementary level. This study aims to investigate the impact of the non-availability of books on students' achievement in District Peshawar, Pakistan. The focus is specifically on the absence of textbooks in elementary schools and its consequences on students' academic performance. The research employs an experimental design, involving a sample of elementary school students from various schools in District Peshawar. The study group consists of students who have access to textbooks, while the control group comprises students without access to textbooks due to non-availability. Both groups are assessed based on their academic achievements, using standardized tests and assessments tailored to the curriculum. The findings of this study demonstrate that the non-availability of textbooks significantly affects students' academic achievement. The group of students with access to textbooks exhibits higher scores and improved performance compared to the group without textbooks. The absence of books hinders the students' ability to engage with the curriculum effectively, leading to a lack of conceptual understanding and limited knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, the study explores the impact of non-availability of books on other aspects of education, such as classroom dynamics, teaching methodologies, and teacher-student interactions. It reveals that the absence of textbooks not only affects students' academic performance but also impedes the overall learning environment and teaching practices within the classroom.

Author Biographies

Zohra Gul, GGPS Ghari Qamar Din Peshawar.

GGPS  Ghari Qamar Din Peshawar.

Dr. Shakila Malik, H/M Elementary & Secondary, Peshawar, Pakistan.

H/M Elementary & Secondary, Peshawar, Pakistan.