AN INVESTIGATION OF ELITE OFFICIALS'S PERCEPTION REGARDING REFEREE AND GENERAL SELF-EFFICACY IN PAKISTAN
Keywords:Referee self-Efficacy, General self-Efficacy, Referees, Elite Officialâ€™s
Background: The main purpose of this study was an investigation of elite officialâ€™s perception regarding referee and general self-Efficacy in Pakistan. Methods: The sample of this study was male referees (n=250) and female referees (n=47) selected from different four sports federations: Athletics male (n=67) and female (n=20), Football male (n=85) and female (n=2), Volleyball male (n=53) and female (n=20) and Hockey male (n=45) and female (n=5) from Pakistan. Referee self-Efficacy (REFS) and General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale were used to measure the variables. Results: The results of independent sample t-test revealed that there was a significant (p<0.01) difference physical fitness, game knowledge, decision making, pressure and referee self-efficacy accordingly to gender status. The ANOVA results of athletics, football, volleyball and hockey revealed that there was significant (p<0.01) difference physical fitness, pressure, communication, GSE. The results of ANOVA, (least significant difference test LSD) revealed that there was significant difference between athletics and volleyball, football and volleyball accordingly physical fitness variable. Accordingly pressure variable results revealed that there was significant difference between, football and hockey. Communication variable results revealed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference between athletics and hockey, football and volleyball, volleyball and hockey. The total score of (GSE) results revealed that there was significant (p<.05) difference between athletics and football, athletics and hockey and volleyball and hockey. The Correlation coefficients between all variables were positive and significant relationship each other. Conclusion: The results concluded that male referee and technical officials have high (mean score) of all variables than female, results also indicated that athletics technical officials have high level of referee and general self-efficacy than football, volleyball and hockey officialâ€™s.
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