Job behaviors and their impact on Performance Appraisal Effectiveness: Conceptual Propositions

Wali Rahman, Haji Rahman, Fayaz Ali Shah, Jawad Hussain


The current study is a prepositional study which looks employee behaviours and their impact on human resource intervention effectiveness. It is a literature based study. Extant literature has been explored and relationships have been presented in a new way. The study is the first one in conceptually presenting new insights. The study is believed to open a fresh research discussion. It has theoretical implications. The study recommends empirical testing of the proposition presented in this study. The study has all the limitations of a social science research.


Performance appraisal, commitment, trust, and job satisfaction

Full Text:



Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Annamalai, T., Abdullah, A. G. K., & Alazidiyeen, N. J. (2010). The Mediating Effects of Perceived Organizational Support on the Relationships between Organizational Justice, Trust and Performance Appraisal in Malaysian Secondary Schools. European Journal of Social Sciences, 13(4), 623-632.

Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (2005). Managing Performance: Performance Management in Action: CIPD Publishing.

Beardwell, I., & Holden, L. (1997). Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Perspective: Pitman, London.

Benson, J., Debroux, P., Yuasa, M., & Zhu, Y. (2000). Flexibility and labour management: Chinese manufacturing enterprises in the 1990s. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(2), 183-196.

Boswell, W. R., & Boudreau, J. W. (2002). Separating the developmental and evaluative performance appraisal uses. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(3), 391-412.

Brockner, J., Siegel, P. A., Daly, J. P., Tyler, T., & Martin, C. (1997). When trust matters: The moderating effect of outcome favorability. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(3), 558-583.

Campbell, D. J., & Lee, C. (1988). Self-appraisal in performance evaluation: Development versus evaluation. The Academy of Management Review, 13(2), 302-314.

Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette, & Hough, L.M. (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 39-73): Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Chughtai, A. A., & Zafar, S. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment among Pakistani university teachers. Applied HRM Research, 11(1), 39-64.

Edgar, F., & Geare, A. (2005). HRM practice and employee attitudes: different measures–different results. Personnel Review, 34(5), 534-549.

Faizal, M. (2005). Institutionalization of performance appraisal system: A case study of the Maldivian public service. (MS MS Thesis), University of Bergen, Norway.

Fletcher, C. (2002). Appraisal: an individual psychological perspective. Psychological Management of Individual Performance, 113-135.

Georgellis, Y., & Lange, T. (2007). Participation in continuous, on-the-job training and the impact on job satisfaction: longitudinal evidence from the German labour market. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(6), 969-985.

Giffin, K. (1967). The contribution of studies of source credibility to a theory of interpersonal trust in the communication process. Psychological Bulletin, 68(2), 104-120.

Harley, B. (2002). Employee responses to high performance work system practices: An analysis of the AWIRS95 data. The Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 418-434.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268-279.

Ikramullah, M., Shah, B., Hassan, F. S., Zaman, T., & Shah, I. A. (2011). Peformance appraisal fairness perception in supervisory and non-supervisory employees: A case of civil servants in district Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Business and Management Review, 1(7), 37-45.

Jawahar, I. (2005). Rater behaviors, ratee’s reactions and performance. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Academy of Management.

Khan, A. (2007). Performance appraisal’s relation with productivity and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 1(2), 99-114.

Laka-Mathebula, M. R. (2004). Modelling the Relationship Between Organizational Commitment, Leadership Style, Human Resources Management Practices and Organizational Trust. (Doctor of Philosophy PhD Thesis), University of Pretoria, Pretoria.

Lee, C. H., & Bruvold, N. T. (2003). Creating value for employees: Investment in employee development. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 981-1000.

Lee, H. R. (2000). An Empirical Study of Organizational Justice as a Mediator of the Relationships Among Leader-Member Exchange and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intentions in the Lodging Industry. (Doctor of Philosophy PhD Thesis), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734.

Mazhar-ul-Haq. (1977). A Short History of Islam: From the Rise of Islam to the Fall of Baghdad, 571 AD to 1258 AD. Lahore: Bookland.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, and Application: Sage publications, inc.

Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review, 11(3), 299-326.

Misztal, B. A. (1996). Trust in Modem Societies: Polity Press, Cambridge MA.

Mowday, R. T., & Richard, M. (1979). Steers, and Lyman W. Porter (1979),“The Measurement of Organizational Commitment,”. Journal of vocational behavior, 14(2), 224–247.

Muczyk, J. P., & Gable, M. (1987). Managing sales performance through a comprehensive performance appraisal system. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 7(1), 41-52.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2005). Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage (5th ed.): New York: McGraw-Hill.

Patten, T. H. (1977). Pay: Employee Compensation and Incentive Plans: Free Press.

Prowse, P., & Prowse, J. (2009). The dilemma of performance appraisal. Measuring Business Excellence, 13(4), 69-77.

Rahman, H., & Khan, G. A. (2016). Examining the interceding role of leader-member xchange (LMX) in the relationship between trust and employee engagement. Sarhad Journal of Management Sciences 2(1), 66-73.

Rasch, L. (2004). Employee performance appraisal and the 95/5 rule. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 28(5), 407-414.

Robbins, S. P. (2002). Organizational Behavior (10th edn ed.): Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Scarpello, V. G., Ledvinka, J., & Bergmann, T. J. (1995). Human Resource Management: Environments and Functions: South-Western College Pub., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Schellhardt, T. D. (1996). Annual agony: It’s time to evaluate your work, and all involved are groaning. The Wall Street Journal, A1.

Shahzad, K., Bashir, S., & Ramay, M. I. (2008). Impact of HR practices on perceived performance of university teachers in Pakistan. International Review of Business Research Papers, 4(2), 302-315.

Soltani, E., Van Der Meer, R., & Williams, T. M. (2005). A Contrast of HRM and TQM Approaches to Performance Management: Some Evidences. British journal of Management, 16(3), 211-230.

Tessema, M. T., & Soeters, J. L. (2006). Challenges and prospects of HRM in developing countries: testing the HRM–performance link in the Eritrean civil service. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(1), 86-105.

Tziner, A., Latham, G. P., Price, B. S., & Haccoun, R. (1996). Development and validation of a questionnaire for measuring perceived political considerations in performance appraisal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 179-190.

Wright, P. M., Gardner, T. M., & Moynihan, L. M. (2003). The impact of HR practices on the performance of business units. Human Resource Management Journal, 13(3), 21-36.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Sarhad Journal of Management Sciences by Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at