Iqbal Ahmad


Service-learning is an emerging popular teaching and learning approach. It is considered to be associated with improved students’ academic outcomes. Numerous scales are being used for assessing service-learning world-wide. Service-Learning Scale (SLS) is one such important scale which has also been used for measuring students’ service related outcomes in different studies. This study is purposefully designed to examine the psychometric properties of SLS in Pakistani context. To collect data, 141 students were approached through a survey method who participated in service-learning projects vocational training institutes of Pakistan. These students were purposively selected from 15 vocational training institutes of where service-learning is implemented as a curriculum course. Data was analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) in order to explore the hidden dimensions in the scale. A three factor structure model emerged based on Component Factor Analysis (PCA) method. These factors included content knowledge, interpersonal skills and volunteering attitude. The results of this study confirmed that service-learning is a three factor model and is a reliable and valid scale for assessing service-learning outcomes. For further validation it is suggested that this three factor model needs testing in other contexts for more extensive results and improvement of psychometrics of the scale. The newness of the study is psychometric validation (contextual) of SLA as there hardly exists any evidence of its validation in Pakistan. The study has theoretical as well as practical implications.


Service-learning, Service Learning Scale (SLS), service learning outcomes, vocational education

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