OPENING NEW FRONTIERS IN ADAPTIVE SPORTS FOR SPECIAL PERSONS THROUGH INCLUSION

Muhammad Asad Rauf Abbasi, Chaudhry Muhammad Farhan, Farooq Hussain

Abstract


Disability has always been associated with limitations and social segregation. And when it comes to sports, circumstances for special persons are largely unfavorable. In this modern era, inclusion is somewhat replacing social segregation, but there are new frontiers waiting to be explored. The event of Paralympic is evolving along with the social norms within mainstream society. Hence, there is always a space for new ideas to emerge. For instance, several new sports can be modified and introduced to special persons. This research aimed at bridging this gap by introducing a plethora of conventional sports that can be modified to suit the needs of special persons. For example, special persons can be trained with modified versions of wrestling, karate, and power-lifting. Hence, the researcher triangulated his research by conducting semi-structured interviews aimed at special persons from all four types of disabilities to get their perspective. The researcher was well-acquainted with the relevance of different varieties within the emerging trends in sports. Therefore, his own participant observation guided the course of this study. A sample of 12 special persons with all four types of disability was interviewed. The study discovered that many special persons displayed prominent acumen and interest toward aforementioned sports.


Keywords


Inclusion, power-lifting, karate, Paralympics, special persons

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aithison, C. (2000). Disability and social inclusion: leisure, sport and culture in the lives of young disabled people. Cheltenham: Scope & Leisure and Sport Research Unit.

Anderson, J. (2003). Turned into taxpayers: paraplegia rehabilitation and sport at Stoke Mandeville. Journal of Contemporary History, 38(3): 461–75.

Berger, R. (2009). Hoop Dreams on Wheels. London: Routledge.

Blinde, E. &. (1997). Enhancing the physical and social self through recreational activity: accounts of individuals with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(4): 327–44.

Brittain, I. (2004). Perceptions of Disability and Their Impact upon Involvement in Sport for People with Disabilities at all levels. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 28(4): 429–52.

Corker, M. &. (2002). Disability/postmodernity: embodying disability theory. London: Continuum.

DePoy, E. &. (1998). Introduction to Research; Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies. London: Mosby.

DePoy, E. &. (2010). Disability design and branding: rethinkig disability within the 21st century. Disability studies Quarterly, 30(2), pp. 485-492.

Fitzgerald, H. (2009). Disability and Youth Sport; International Studies in Physical Education and Youth Sport. Oxon:: Routledge.

Guthrie, S. (1999). Managing imperfection in a perfectionist culture: physical activity and disability management among women with disabilities. Quest, 51: 369–81.

Guttmann, L. (1976). Textbook of sport for the disabled. Queensland: University of Queensland Press.

Hardin, M. H. (2004). The “Supercrip” in Sport Media: Wheelchair Athletes Discuss Hegemony's Disabled Hero. Sociology of Sport Online, 07-(1). Retrieved from http://physed.otago.ac.nz/sosol/v7i1/v7i1_1.html

Hargreaves, J. (2000). Heroins of Sport. London: Routledge.

Hughes, B. &. (1997). , 1997. The social model of disability and the disappearing body: towards asociology of impairment. . Disability and Socitey, 12(3), pp. 325-340.

IPC. (2019). www.paralympic.org. Retrieved from www.paralympic.org: http://www.paralympic.org

Jones, P. H. (2006). Classification of Disabled Athletes: (Dis)empowering the Paralympic Practice Community. Sociology of Sport Journal, 23(1): 29–46.

K. Greer, D. T. (2000). Physical activity as a normalizing experience for school-age children with physical disabilities. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 24(4): 395–414.

Leegwater, E. &. (2005). Beeldvorming over mensen met een beperking. Amsterdam: TNS.

Lienert, C. (2001). Physical educators’ concerns about integrating children with disabilties: a cross-cultural comparison. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18: 1–17.

Nixon, H. (2007). Constructing Diverse Sports Opportunities for People with Disabilities. Journal of Sports and Social Sciences, 31(4) 417-433.

Nixon, H. L. (2007). Constructing Diverse Sports Opportunities for People with disabilities. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 31(4) 417-433.

Oliver, M. (1983). Social work with disabled people. Basingstoke: MacMillans. London: Basingstoke: MacMillans.

Ollqvist, P. (2011). Integraatio ja opettajat: Peruskoulun opettajien käsityksiä erityisoppilaiden sijoittamisesta yleisopetukseen. University of Jyväskylä.

Paralympics. (2012). Retrieved from www.paralympia.fi/index.php?id=370

Peers, D. (2009). ‘(Dis)empowering Paralympic Histories: Absent Athletes and Disabling Discourses. Disability and Society, 24(5): 653–65.

Rimmer, J. (1999). Health promotion for people with disabilities: the emerging paradigm shift from disability prevention to prevention of secondary conditions. Physical Therapy, 79: 495–502.

Riordan, J. (1999). International politics of Sport in the 20th century. London. London: Spon Press.

Saari, A. (2011). Promotors and Hindrases of Open-For-All Sport and Physical. Finnish Sports Association of People with disabilities.

Shakespeare, T. &. (2002). The social model of disability: an outdated ideology? research in social science and disability, Volume 2, pp. 9-28.

Shapiro, D. (2010). Multidimensional physical self-concept of athletes with physical disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 294-307.

Sherrill, C. &. (1996). Disability and sport: psychosocial perspectives on inclusion integration and participation. Sport Science Review, 5(1): 42–64.

Silverman, D. (2000). Doing Qualitative Research: A Paractical Handbook. London: Sage Publications.

Smith, C. T. (2007). Sociologies of Disability and Illness. London: Routledge.

Syrjälä, L. A. (1994). Laadullisen Tutkimuksen Työtapoja, Rauma: Kirjayhtymä. Rauma: Kirjayhtymä.

UPIAS. (1976). Fundamental principles of disability, London. Union of Physically Imparied Against, 3-4.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




ISSN 2520-7814