FACTORS AFFECTING JOB TURNOVER: A CASE STUDY OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF DISTRICT SWAT

Faisal Khan, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, Pakistan. Email: faisalkhanutm@yahoo.com

Abdul Mateen, Centre for Management & Commerce, University of Swat

Badshah Hussain, Centre for Management & Commerce, University of Swat

Muhammad Sohail, Centre for Management & Commerce, University of Swat

Amjad Khan, Centre for Management & Commerce, University of Swat

Abstract. Several factors force employees to leave the organization. This study examines the relationship among job turnover intention, workload, low pay and job stress in private schools at district swat. For this purpose, the data has been collected from of two hundred and forty eight employees. The results of the study indicated that workload, low pay and job stress are significantly positive related to turnover intention. This study also suggested that for overcoming the turnover from the schools enough salary should be given to employees to motivate them and retained.

Key words: Turnover, Stress, Private School Teachers

Introduction

From past decades job turnover intention affects the organization reputation and both individual and organizational performance. According to Ahuja, Chudoba, George, Kacmar and McKnight, (2002) job turnover refers to the amount of movement of employees in and out of an organization. Similarly, another definition of turnover refers to the separation of an employee from the organization (Hammerberg, 2002). Conscious and deliberate willingness to leave the organization is called turnover intention (Khan, Yusoff., & Khan., 2014; Qureshi et al., 2013).

Recently, rapid changes in the world, globalization, economic conditions and innovation in technology created problems like competition among the employees in the organization. Every organization at any aspect is in competition with other organization. Similarly, every organization is trying to skill full their employees and wants a smart work than hard work. Resultantly this competition leads the employees to workload and low pay. Therefore, workload refers to the amount of work that is allocated to an employee to do (Khan., Rasli, Khan, Yasir, & Malik, 2014; Qureshi et al., 2013). Workload is the intensity of job assignments (Glaser, Tatum, Nebeker, Sorenson, & Aiello, 1999). In other words, workload is defined, as more work should be done in specific time.

Other than this, stress is another factor to influence the turnover among the employees. Schaufeli, Leiter and Maslach, (2009), suggested that stress experience causes pressure or demands on an individual (Schaufeli et al., 2009). On the other hand, stress affects the individual’s ability to cope or, his/her perception of ability to become a productive. Job Stress affects the satisfaction, performance, organizational commitment, turnover intentions and productivity of employees. In results, Job Stress develops from unwanted physical and psychological indicators among employees, where these unwanted indicators affect the Organizational outcomes like poor performance, low organizational commitment and having high turnover intentions (Panatik et al., 2012).

From all afore mentioned studies, various factors have directly and indirectly force employees to leave the organization i.e. economically, work life conflict, workload and other competition. The above-mentioned factors cause stress, which influence job turnover intention.

Different researchers studied various influential factors that contribute to employee turnover in developed countries, but still there is need to study in the developing country. However, this study focuses on three factors job stress, work load and low pay in Pakistan, where Pakistan is one o f the under research countries. The study is also focuses on private schools of Mingora city, district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

Research Objective

The basic purpose and objective of this research study was

RO1: To find out the relationship of job stress, workload and low pay on job turnover in private schools of Mingora.

RO2: To examine the effect of job stress, workload and low pay on job turnover in private schools of Mingora.

Hypotheses

H1.    There is a positive relationship between job turnover and job stress.

H2.    There is a positive relationship between job turnover and workload.

H3.    There is a positive relationship between job turnover and low pay.


 

Literature Review

From the last four decades employee turnover is becoming a burning issue for the organizations (Pienaar, Sieberhagen, & Mostert, 2007). Employee’s turnover rate has been increased while the organizations pay verities of costs (Lee & Shin, 2005). Employees’ turnover is a well-recognized issue having critical importance to the organizations (Houkes, Janssen, Jonge, & Bakker, 2003). According to Ahmad. Fakhr, Ali, and Zaman, (2010), the rate of turnover in university Lecturers' in Pakistan is more than 60% (Ahmad et al., 2010), while another study in the rate of turnover is 3.4% in Singapore, in South Korea is 2.9%, and in Taiwan 2.7%, (Barnard & Rodgers, 2000).

Job turnover means the number of employees going out from an organization (Oredein & Alao, 2010). Job turnover is the process, in which employees leave their organizations intentionally (Mosadeghrad, 2013). A series of actions in which employee leave the organization or being replaced is called turnover intention (Mbah & Ikemefuna, 2012). Consciously and willingly separation of an employee from the organization is known as job turnover intention (Hammerberg, 2002; Qureshi et al., 2013). In the light of the above stated definition we can briefly define the employee turnover intention as the ratio of the number of employees that leave the organization or to be replaced through attrition, dismissal, or resignation in a given time period.

Many factors contribute in turnover intention. Demographic Factors such as age, marital status, gender, number of children (Ahmad et al., 2010). Health and family related issues (Oredein & Alao, 2010). Present pay position, nature of job and promotion factors (Ahuja et al., 2002; Nwankwo et al., 2013). Recognition, work condition, co-workers’ and supervisors support like factors contribute in employee turnover (Hammerberg, 2002; Mosadeghrad, 2013). Male teachers tends more than female to job turnover intention (Yusoff & Khan, 2013). It is because female teachers are more satisfied then male teachers with their pay and nature of job. Work load and stress directly contribute in job turnover intention (Khan et al., 2014; Qureshi et al., 2013). Work family conflict and job dissatisfaction have a positive relationship with job turnover intentions (Oredein & Alao, 2010).

Present day stress is found in every type of organization due to rapid technological changes, competition, modern life style and work life conflicts (Claude, Stephanie, & Robert, 2012). First time stress was defined by Selye (1936). According to Ahmed & Ramzan, 2013 stress is a type of mental pressure, or tension exerted upon an individual due to workload. The individuals are trying to minimize this stress (Ahmed & Ramzan, 2013). Stress is the adverse reaction of the demand placed on employees (Health & Executive, 2001). It is a situation which will force a person to deviate from normal functioning (Geertje, Tineke, Karin, Veldhoven, & JPM, 2009). When employees have excessive work load they feel stress (Claire, Edward, Robert, John, & Jennifer, 2004).

Occupational stress is a crucial factor influencing employees’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Abbasi & Hollman, 2000). Due to stress employees feel dissatisfaction and de-motivation (Mosadeghrad, 2013). Dissatisfied and uncommitted employees are more tends to leave the job (Claire et al., 2004). Job stress is a crucial factor influencing employees’ job satisfaction, which is key turnover predictor (Hammerberg, 2002). Job stress has cost of skilled employees that is felt in term of low productivity and high rates of staff turnover (Ahmed & Ramzan, 2013). Minimizing of work stress results an increase in job satisfaction and decreasing in job turnover intention (Heydarian & Abhar, 2011).

Every organization now critically analyzes the stress management issues that affect organizational goals and objectives (Hussain, Sardar, Usman, & Ali, 2012). High level of job stress causes employees dissatisfaction and high turnover intention (Ahmed & Ramzan, 2013). One of the major sources of job stress is heavy work load. Work overload means the excessive work or work that is outside ones capability (Yahaya, Yahaya, Arshad, Ismail, & Jaalam, 2009). Workload refers to the amount of work that is allocated to an employee to do (Qureshi et al., 2013).

Stress is an important mediator between workload and turnover intentions (Glaser et al., 1999). Workload and job satisfaction affect organizational commitment, which in turn, influence turnover intention (Nwankwo et al., 2013). Excessive workload and stress directly contribute in job turn over intention (Ahuja et al., 2002). Workload and job stress leads toward leaving the job (Qureshi et al., 2013). Employees dissatisfaction, job stress and work overload contribute in job turnover intention (Pienaar et al., 2007). Employees willingly quits job due to the fact of too much workload and lack of perceived support (Despoina et al., 2007). Workload not only causes job stress and dissatisfaction, but also contribute in job turnover intention (Heydarian & Abhar, 2011; Yusoff & Khan, 2013).

Along with job stress and work load, low pay is also considered one of the influential factor, affecting employee turnover (Nisar et al., 2012). Employers, who offer competitive salaries along with good benefits, will most likely retain their employees (Claude et al., 2012; Tippet & Kluvers, 2009). The opportunity for advancement and promotions also help to retain employees in the organization (Houkes et al., 2003). Awards can range anywhere from a gift card for the local department store to actual monetary bonuses. Employee turnover can be the result of job dissatisfaction, low pay, facilities provided, and illness (Qureshi et al., 2013).

Significant numbers of employees in early stage of their profession are schoolteachers. Many researches has shown that approximately one quarter of all beginning teachers leave teaching within four years (Upadhyaya, Basel, & Shakya, 2013).The financial insecure condition of generates stress among employees and they often quit from organization due financial reasons in order to search the better opportunities (Ahmed & Ramzan, 2013; Malik, Anuar, Khan, & Khan, 2014).

Research Methodology

This study is explanatory in nature because it explains the relationship among job turnover intention, job stress, workload, and low pay. Population for this study was private schools teachers of district swat KP Pakistan. A sample of 35 private schools was selected from the population by simple random sampling technique specify sample. A total of 700 hundred teachers were the population where two Hundred and forty eight (248) were the sample by the formula of Krejcie and Morgan (1970). The questionnaires were distributed in the sample schools for data collection. This questionnaire is consists of twenty one questions that were originally built (Kuvaas, 2007). Instrument was distributed in private schools and was collected personally. In order to describe general characteristics’ of data, descriptive analysis was used. As the study tried to investigate the causal relationship between different variables, for this purpose correlation analysis was used. In order to investigate the magnitude of causal relation regression analysis was performed. “T test” was used for the rejection and acceptance of hypotheses.

Results and Discussion

Descriptive statistics   

Descriptive analysis is used to describe the general characteristics of the data (Khan., Rasli, Yusoff, & Ahmad, 2015). These study uses mean, standard deviation and frequencies of the demographics such as age, gender, qualification and income. The mean, skewness, frequencies, and standard deviation values are given below. Mean value shows that most of the respondent age falls in 25-34. Males are 192 while females are 8. Most of the respondent’s qualification is master and more of the respondents get salary from 5000 to 15000.


 

Table 1                        Demographic Profile

 

Mean

Std. deviation

Frequencies

Gender

1.040

0.1965

200

Male

192

Female

08

Age of employees

2.770

0.8780

200

Under 18 years

13

18-24 year

63

25-34 years

84

35-44 years

37

45-above years

03

Income

1.385

0.7066

200

5000-10000

129

11000-15000

30

16000-20000

17

21000-25000

13

Above 25000

11

Qualification

3.545

0.8193

200

High School

20

Bachelor

73

Master

85

Above Master

22

Reliability

In the reliability analysis, Cronbach’s alpha has been used to know about the instrument accuracy. In the study Cronbach’s alpha Values are given in the table below. The values for job turnover intention, job stress, work load and low pay indicates that the instruments used are reliable. Generally (0.7 or above) value for Cronbach’s alpha is used but in social science Cronbach’s alpha value (0.6) is considered acceptable (Best & Kahn 2012; Khan., Rasli, Yusoff et al., 2014).

Table 2: Reliability Statistics

Variable Name           

Cronbach’s alpha

No of Items

job turnover intention

0.807

6

Job stress

0.874

5

Work load

0.725

5

Low pay

0.786

5

 

Correlation analysis

In order to calculate the degree of association among the job turnover intention, job stress, workload and low pay this study uses correlation matrix. The study shows that turnover is strongly positively related to job stress, workload and low pay. It means that when job stress and work load on employees increase their intention to quit the job increase.

Table 3 Correlation Analysis

(**) correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Regression analysis

The regression analysis is used to calculate the magnitude of causal relation of independent and dependent variable. The F values in the table show that overall model is significant. The adjusted R square values show that 30%, 40% and 20% of variance in Job turnover intention can be predicted from job stress, workload and low pay respectively. β value shows that one unit change in job stress, work load and low pay cause 0.5, 0.6 and 0.4 unites increase in Job turnover intention respectively. The p values show that there is a significant relationship exists among Job turnover intention, job stress, workload and low pay. Based on table interpretation, all hypotheses are accepted.

Table 4 Model Summary

 

Β

R2

Adj R2

F

T

Sig

 

 

 0.290

 0.287

80.979

 

.000

(Constant)

3.650

Dependent variable: Job turnover intention

3.964

.000

Job Stress

0 .539

8.999

.000

 

 

 0.430

0.428

149.607

 

.000

(Constant)

3.043

Dependent variable: Job turnover intention

4.140

.000

Work load

0.656

12.231

.000

 

 

 0.175

0.171

42.048

 

.000

(Constant)

7.258

Dependent variable: Job turnover intention

10.017

.002

Low pay

0.419

6.484

.000

Based on table interpretation, all hypotheses are accepted. First hypothesis of the study was “There is a significant relationship between Job turnover intention and job stress Due to stress employees feel dissatisfaction and de-motivation (Khan et al., 2014; Mosadeghrad, 2013). Dissatisfied employees are more tends to leave the job (Claire et al., 2004). The second hypothesis is “There is a significant relationship between Job turnover intention and workload.” Work load and stress directly contribute in job turnover intention (Khan et al., 2014; Qureshi et al., 2013).

The third and final hypothesis of this study was “There is a significant relationship between Job turnover intention and low pay.” So from the results above it is clear that there is a significant and positive relationship found between the dependent variable job turnover intention and independent variables job stress, work load and low pay. It means that when job stress and work load on employees increase their intention to quit the job increase and vice versa. Minimizing of work stress results an increase in job satisfaction and decreasing in job turnover intention (Heydarian & Abhar, 2011).

Conclusion and Recommendations

From the results of the current study, it has been concluded that there is a significant and positive relation exists between job stress and workload. Such as with the increase of workload job stress is increases and ultimately turnover intention increase and vice versa. on the other hand, stress plays an important mediating role between workload and turnover intentions (Glaser et al., 1999). For overcoming stress, it should decrease workload on employees and facilitate them during the job and as well in the environment. In addition, for overcoming the turnover from the schools enough salary should be given to employees to motivate the teachers and retained them. Employers, who offer competitive salaries along with good benefits will most likely retain their employees (Claude et al., 2012; Tippet & Kluvers, 2009).

From the above study observation, it has been concluded that it is necessary to satisfy employees with benefits. The data were obtained exclusively from district swat, since relationships may differ in other districts and countries where, it is not clear that the findings of the study can be generalized to other places of Pakistan or other developing countries. The questionnaire used in this study can also be used in other studies for further validation.


 

References

Abbasi, S. M., & Hollman, K. W. (2000). Turnover: The real bottom line. Public Personnel Management, 29(3), 333-342.

Ahmad, M. S., Fakhr, Z., Ali Shah, I., & Zaman, K. (2010). Measuring push, pull and personal factors affecting turnover intention: A case of university teachers in Pakistan. Review of Economic & Business Studies (5), 167-192.

Ahmed, A., & Ramzan, M. (2013). Effects of Job Stress on Employees Job Performance A Study on Banking Sector of Pakistan. Journal of Business and Management(IOSR-JBM), 11(6), 61-68.

Ahuja, M., Chudoba, K. M., George, J. F., Kacmar, C., & McKnight, H. (2002). Overworked and isolated? Predicting the effect of work-family conflict, autonomy, and workload on organizational commitment and turnover of virtual workers. Paper presented at the System Sciences, 2002. HICSS. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference.

Barnard, M. E., & Rodgers, R. A. (2000). How are internally oriented HRM policies related to high-performance work practices? Evidence from Singapore. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(6), 1017-1046.

Claire, C., Edward, H., Robert, D., John, R., & Jennifer, S. (2004). Overtime and extended work shifts: recent findings on illnesses, injuries, and health behaviors (Vol. 143): US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Claude, F., Stephanie, A., & Robert, V. (2012). The effects of work motivation on employee exhaustion and commitment: An extension of the JD-R model. Work & Stress, 26(3), 213-229.

Despoina, X., Arnold, B., Maureen, D., Evangelia, D., Wilmar, S., TarisToon, & Paul, S. (2007). When do job demands particularly predict burnout? The moderating role of job resources. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(8), 766-786.

Geertje, V. D., Tineke, W., Karin, S., Veldhoven, V., & JPM, M. (2009). Emotional exhaustion and mental health problems among employees doing “people work”: The impact of job demands, job resources and family-to-work conflict. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 82(3), 291-303.

Glaser, D. N., Tatum, B. C., Nebeker, D. M., Sorenson, R. C., & Aiello, J. R. (1999). Workload and social support: Effects on performance and stress. Human Performance, 12(2), 155-176.

Hammerberg, J. H. (2002). Reasons given for employee turnover in a full priced department store. University of Wisconsin-Stout.  

Health, & Executive, S. (2001). Tackling Work-related Stress: A Guide for Employees.

Heydarian, M., & Abhar, S. (2011). Factors contributing to employees’ turnover intention. SEGi Review, 4(2), 31-41.

Houkes, I., Janssen, P. P., Jonge, J., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention: A multisample longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(4), 427-450.

Hussain, A., Sardar, S., Usman, M., & Ali, A. (2012). Factors affecting the job performance: In case of Pakistani banking sector. Finance Management, 47, 8726-8730.

Khan, F., Yusoff., R. M., & Khan., A. (2014). Job demands, burnout and resources in teaching a conceptual review. World Applied Sciences Journal, 30(1), 20-28.

Khan., F., Rasli, A. B. M., Yusoff, R. M., Malik, M. F., Khan, M. M., & Khan, Q. (2014). Effect of emotional exhaustion on organziational commitment among academicains. Science International Lahore, 26(5), 2433-2437.

Khan., F., Rasli, A. M., Khan, S., Yasir, M., & Malik, M. F. (2014). Job burnout and professional development among universities academicians. Science International Lahore, 26(4), 1693-1696.

Khan., F., Rasli, A. M., Yusoff, R. M., & Ahmad, A. (2015). Do demographic make a difference to job burnout among university academicians? International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 5 (Special Issue).

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Kuvaas, B. (2007). Different relationships between perceptions of developmental performance appraisal and work performance. Personnel Review, 36(3), 378-397.

Lee, K.-E., & Shin, K.-H. (2005). Job burnout, engagement and turnover intention of dietitians and chefs at a contract food service management company. Journal of Community Nutrition, 7(2), 100-106.

Malik, M. F., Anuar, M. A., Khan, S., & Khan, F. (2014). Mergers and acquisitions: A conceptual review. International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, 4(2), 520-533.

Mbah, S. E., & Ikemefuna, C. (2012). Job satisfaction and employees’ turnover intentions in total Nigeria plc. Lagos State. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(14), 275-287.

Mosadeghrad, A. M. (2013). Occupational stress and turnover intention: Implications for nursing management. International journal of health policy and management, 1(2), 169-176.

Nisar, A., Zafar, M. I., Mahmood, B., Sohail, M. M., Sher, F., & Safdar, M. R. (2012). Pay benefits and workplace milieu effecting job satisfaction level of university teachers: A case study of Punjab University. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2(10), 1815-1831.

Nwankwo, B. E., Kanu, G., Obi, T., Sydney-Agbor, N., Agu, S., & Aboh, J. U. (2013). Psychological contract breach and work overload as predictors of emotional exhaustion among bank employees. Psychology and Social Behavior Research, 1(2), 25-33.

Oredein, A., & Alao, F. (2010). Work-family conflict, job satisfaction and labour turnover intention among state university lectrurers. Monograph. Ago-Iwoye: Adebisi Onabanjo University.

Panatik, S. A. B., Rajab, A., Shaari, R., Shah, I. M., Rahman, H. A., & Badri, S. (2012). Impact of work-related stress on well-being among academician in Malaysian Research University. International Proceedings of Economics Development & Research, 30, 37-41.

Pienaar, J., Sieberhagen, C., & Mostert, K. (2007). Investigating turnover intentions by role overload, job satisfaction and social support moderation. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33(2), 62-67.

Qureshi, M. I., Iftikhar, M., Abbas, S. G., Hassan, U., Khan, K., & Zaman, K. (2013). Relationship between job stress, workload, environment and employees turnover intentions: What we know, what should we know. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(6), 764-770.

Schaufeli, Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). "Burnout: 35 years of research and practice". Career Development International, 14(3), 204-220.

Selye, H. (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138(3479), 32.

Tippet, J., & Kluvers, R. (2009). Employee rewards and motivation in non profit organisations: Case study from Australia. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), 7-14.

Upadhyaya, T. P., Basel, N. P., & Shakya, A. (2013). Factors affecting employee turnover: A study on private schools teachers in Butwal Municipality. The KIC Journal of Management and Economic Review, 1(1), 35-45.

Yahaya, A., Yahaya, N., Arshad, K., Ismail, J., & Jaalam, S. (2009). Occupational stress and its effects towards the organization management. Journal of Social Sciences 5(4), 390-397.

Yusoff, R. M., & Khan, F. (2013). Stress and Burnout in the Higher Education Sector in Pakistan: A Systematic Review of Literature. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 2(11), 90-98.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




ISSN 2414-2336 (Print), ISSN 2523-2525 (Online)