Relationship between female secondary education and economic growth of Pakistan

Arshad Ali

Abstract


The main focusing of this study is to examine empirically the connection between female secondary school enrollment and economic growth of Pakistan taking the period of 1975-2014. The variables of the series passed the test of stationary by the first difference as evaluated by the ADF and PP test. Therefore, by employing the Johansen test of cointegration, the result shows that female secondary school enrollment and labor employment have insignificantly long run positive influence on economic growth, however, capital formation has significantly positive impact on economic growth of Pakistan. The Granger causality test based on VECM shows that female secondary school enrollment and GDP have long run two-way causality, however, the short run bidirectional causality does not exist but unidirectional causality, which is running from GDP to female secondary school enrollment. 


Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Cooray, A., & Hassan, G. M. (2013). Effects of Male and Female Education on Economic Growth. Working Paper in Economics.

Dickey, D. a., & Fuller, W. a. (1979). Distribution of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Journal of Th American Statistical Association, 74(366), 427–431. http://doi.org/10.2307/2286348

Dollar, D., & Gatti, R. (1999). Gender inequality income and growth: Are good times good for women? The World Bank, (1), 1–42. Retrieved from http://darp.lse.ac.uk/frankweb/courses/EC501/DG.pdfnhttp://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Gender+inequality,+income,+and+growth:+are+good+times+good+for+women?#0

Engle, R. F., & Granger, C. W. J. (1987). Co-Integration and Error Correction : Representation , Estimation , and Testing Published by : Econometric Society Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/1913236 REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : You may need to log. Journal of the Econometric Society, 55(2), 251–276.

Gemmell, N. (1996). Evaluating The Impacts Of Human Capital Stocks And Accumulation On Economic Growth: Some New Evidence. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 58(1), 9–28. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468

Granger, C. W. J. (1969). Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-spectral Methods. Journal of Economitric Society, 37(3), 424–438. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/1912791

Hassan, G. M., & Cooray, A. (2013). Effects of Male and Female Education on Economic Growth : Some Evidence from Asia Using the Extreme Bounds Analysis. Working Paper in Economics, 10(13), 1–28.

Johansen, S. (1988). Statistical Analysis of Cointegration Vectors. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12(2-3), 231–254.

Johansen, S. (1991). Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models. The Econometric Society, 59(6), 1551–1580.

Knowles, S., Lorgelly, P., & Owen, P. D. (2002). Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence. Oxford Economic Papers, 54(1), 118–149. http://doi.org/10.1093/oep/54.1.118

Lucas, R. E. (1988). On The Mechanics Of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22, 3–42.

Malik, B. A., Amin, N., Ahmad, K., Mukhtar, E. M., Saleem, M., & Kakli, M. B. (2015). Pakistan Education for All Review Report 2015.

Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D., & Weil, D. N. (1992). A Contribution To the Empirics of Economic Growth. Nber Working Paper Series, 407–437.

PES. (2015). Education. Retrieved from http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapters_15/10_Education.pdf

PHILLIPS, P. C. B., & PERRON, P. (1988). Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series Regression. Oxford University Press on Behalf of Biometrika Trust Stable, 75(2), 335–346.

Razmi, M., Falahi, M., Abbasian, E., & Salehifard, M. (2015). The Relationship between Women ’ s Education and Human Development. European Scxientific Journal, 1(4), 177–183.

Self, S., & Grabowski, R. (2004). Does education at all levels cause growth? India, a case study. Economics of Education Review, 23(1), 47–55. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00045-1

The World Bank. (2008). Girls ’ Education in the 21st Century.

Thomas R.L. (1996). Modern econometrics: an introduction Harlow: Addison-Wesley.

UNESCO. (2016). Education: Gross enrolment ration by level of education (Vol. 37).

UNGEI. (2014). Accelerating Secondary Education for Girls : Focusing on Access and Retention. Global Partnership for Education.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




ISSN 2414-2336 (Print), ISSN 2523-2525 (Online)