Currently, digitization in the healthcare segment starts to go head. The healthcare sector tries hard towards gaining excellence in the robust competitive environment of business on the way to the adoption of the latest technology. The current paper has described the importance of training in enhancing the adaptive performance of healthcare professionals in the era of digitization in Pakistan. The concept of adaptive performance has gained more importance now a day due to technological innovations in the field of healthcare. However, a collective refrain of adaptive performance is flexible as well as responsive behavior at the workplace that is desirable to adapt in the direction of the changes. The provision of training has now become an imperative practice to augment and prepare human resources to adapt the changes related to the latest technology in the healthcare setup such as digitized tools to administer drugs, interventions, machines, procedures, and software to manage the patient data efficaciously. Thus, the main element that affects the adaptive performance of healthcare professionals in organizations is training among other HR practices. Therefore, this study proposes that the healthcare sector needs to offer an up to date training programs to inculcate its employees the essential skills and knowledge to adapt the technological changes. As a developing country, it is important to train our professionals to manage and familiarize themselves with the anticipated technological changes to make a digitized healthcare system in Pakistan a reality.


Training, Adaptive Performance, Digitization, Healthcare, Pakistan.

Full Text:



Abdullah, M. A., Mukhtar, F., Wazir, S., Gilani, I., Gorar, Z., & Shaikh, B. T. (2014). The Health Workforce Crisis in Pakistan: A Critical Review and the Way Forward. World Health & Population, 15(3), 4-12.

Allen, A. (2011). Technology meets challenges, but training ensures success. Nursing Management (Springhouse), 42(12), 35-36.

Anastasy, C., Barros, P. P., Barry, M., Bourek, A., Brouwer, W., Maeseneer, J. D., . . . Wild, C. (2019). Assessing The Impact Of Digital Transformation Of Health Services: Luxembourg: European Union.

Ansari, E. (2018, October 27). As technology advances, so does healthcare in Pakistan - convenient and free, all in the palm of your hand. Express Tribune.

Anwar, F., Kumar, R., & Sulaiman, S. (2013). Health informatics in Pakistan: Current scenario in capacity development for health professionals. theHealth, 4(4), 62-65.

Baard, S. K., Rench, T. A., & Kozlowski, S. W. (2014). Performance adaptation: A theoretical integration and review. Journal of Management, 40(1), 48-99.

Baig, M., & Sheikh, S. (2019). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence in Emergency Medicine. South Asian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2(2).

Bandi, S., Angadi, M., & Shivarama, J. (2015). Best Practices in Digitisation: Planning and Workflow Processes. Emerging technologies and future of Libraries: Issues and Challenges. Retrieved from

Bell, B. S., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2008). Active learning: Effects of core training design elements on self-regulatory processes, learning, and adaptability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 296-316.

Bhavnani, S. P., Narula, J., & Sengupta, P. P. (2016). Mobile technology and the digitization of healthcare. European heart journal, 37(18), 1428-1438.

Bloomberg, J. (2018, Apr 29). Digitization, Digitalization, And Digital Transformation: Confuse Them At Your Peril. Forbes.

Blume, B. D., Ford, J. K., Baldwin, T. T., & Huang, J. L. (2010). Transfer of training: A meta-analytic review Journal of Management, 36, 1065- 1105.

Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Salas, E., Pierce, L., & Kendall, D. (2006). Understanding team adaptation: A conceptual analysis and model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1189-1207.

Chan, D. (2000). Understanding adaptation to changes in the work environment: Integrating individual differences and learning perspectives. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 18, 1-42.

Chan, D. (2000). Understanding adaptation to changes in the work environment: Integrating individual differences and learning perspectives. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 18, 1-42.

Charbonnier-Voirin, A., & Roussel, P. (2012). Adaptive Performance: A New Scale to Measure Individual Performance in Organizations. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 29, 280-293.

Chen, G., Thomas, B., & Wallace, J. C. (2005). A multilevel examination of the relationships among training outcomes, mediating regulatory processes, and adaptive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 827-841.

Davenport, T., & Kalakota, R. (2019). The potential for artificial intelligence in healthcare. Future healthcare journal, 6(2), 94-98.

Devi, S., & Murthy, T. (2005). The need for digitization. In C. R. Singh (Ed.), Digital Information Resources & Networks on India: Essays in Honor of Professor Jagindar Singh Ramdev on his 75th Birthday. New Delhi: UBS Publisher’s Distributors Pvt.Ltd.

Ghashghaeizadeh, N., Hoseinpour, M., & Jameie, M. (2018). The Prediction of Nurse's Adaptive Performance based on Psychological Capital and Spiritual Intelligence (Case Study: Shaidzadeh Hospital of Behbahan) Iranian Journal of Nursing Research, 13(5), 52-57.

Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Parker, S. K. (2007). A New Model of Work Role Performance: Positive Behavior in Uncertain and Interdependent Contexts. Academy of Management Journal, 50(2), 327-347.

Guo, J., & Li, B. (2018). The Application of Medical Artificial Intelligence Technology in Rural Areas of Developing Countries. Health equity, 2(1), 174-181.

Hair Jr, J. F., Wolfinbarger, M., Money, A. H., Samouel, P., & Page, M. J. (2015). Essentials of business research methods: Routledge.

Han, T. Y., & Williams, K. J. (2008). A multilevel investigation of adaptive performance individual-and team-level relationships. Group & Organization Management, 33(6), 657-684.

Hesketh, B., & Neal, A. (1999). Technology and performance ( D.R. Ilgen & D.P. Pulakos, The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Heuvel, M., Van den, Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). Adapting to change: The value of change information and meaning-making. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(1), 11-21.

Hoodbhoy, Z., Hasan, B., & Siddiqui, K. (2019). Does artificial intelligence have any role in healthcare in low resource settings? Journal of Medical Artificial Intelligence, 2:13 1-2.

Hutton, R., Ward, P., Wilson, K. M., Conway, G., Amey, D., Lamb, S., & Capewell, D. (2017). Developing adaptive performance skills for agile C2. Paper presented at the 22nd International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium, Los Angeles, USA.

Ilgen, D. R., & Pulakos, E. D. (1999). Employee performance in today’s organizations. (D.R. Ilgen & D.P. Pulakos ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century. (2002). The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century; The Health Care Delivery System. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).

Ittefaq, M., & Iqbal, A. (2018). Digitization of the health sector in Pakistan: challenges and opportunities to online health communication: A case study of MARHAM social and mobile media. Digital health, 4, 2055207618789281-2055207618789281.

Johnson, J. W. (2001). The relative importance of the task and contextual performance dimensions to supervisor judgments of overall performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 984-996.

Jundt, D. K., Shoss, M. K., & Huang, J. L. (2015). Individual adaptive performance in organizations: A review. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 53-71.

Karatepe, O. M., Yavas, U., & Babakus, E. (2007). The effects of customer orientation and job resources on frontline employees’ job outcomes. Services Marketing Quarterly, 29(1), 61-79.

Khalid, F., & Abbasi, A. N. (2018). Challenges Faced by Pakistani Healthcare System: Clinician's Perspective. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 28 (12), 899-901.

Khurshid, A. (2010). Health Care Management Training Needs in Pakistan. Journal of Health Management, 12(3), 211-229.

Lewis, M. (1998). Lifelong learning: Why professionals must have the desire for and the capacity to continue learning throughout life. Health Information Management, 28(2), 62-66.

Marques-Quinteiro, P., Vargas, R., Eifler, N., & Curral, L. (2018). Employee adaptive performance and job satisfaction during an organizational crisis: the role of self-leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-16.

Marr, B. (2019, Nov 1). The 9 Biggest Technology Trends That Will Transform Medicine And Healthcare In 2020.

McGregor, L., & Doshi, N. (2017, October 10). There Are Two Types of Performance — but Most Organizations Only Focus on One. Harvard Business Review.

Mumtaz, D. N. ( 2019, August 10). Digital Healthcare - a far cry. Daily Times.

Munir, S. (2018, May 7). Future of digital healthcare platforms in Pakistan. Techjuice. Retrieved from

Murali, N., & Sivakumaran, N. (2018). Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare-A Review. International Journal of Modern Computation, Information and Communication Technology, 1(6), 103-110.

Naami, A., Behzadi, E., Parisa, H., & Charkhabi, M. (2014). A Study on the Personality Aspects of Adaptive Performance among Governmental Hospitals Nurses: A Conceptual Model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 359-364.

Nasurdin, A. M., Ahmad, N. H., & Tan, C. L. (2015). Cultivating service-oriented citizenship behavior among hotel employees: The instrumental roles of training and compensation. Service Business, 9(2), 343-360.

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2010). Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage (7 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Panch, T., Szolovits, P., & Atun, R. (2018). Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and health systems. Journal of global health, 8(2), 1-8.

Park, S., & Park, S. (2019). Employee Adaptive Performance and Its Antecedents: Review and Synthesis. Human Resource Development Review, 1-31.

Petersen, D. T. ( 2019, 13 September). Digital Economy: How is digitalization changing global competitiveness and economic prosperity? New Perspectives on Global Economic Dynamics.

Pulakos, E., Schmitt, N., Dorsey, D., Arad, S., Borman, W., & Hedge, J. (2002). Predicting Adaptive Performance: Further Tests of a Model of Adaptability. Human Performance, 15, 299-323.

Pulakos, E. D., Arad, S., Donovan, M. A., & Plamondon, K. E. (2000). Adaptability in the workplace: development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance. Journal of applied psychology, 85(4), 612.

Pulakos, E. D., Dorsey, D. W., & White, S. S. (2006). Adaptability in the workplace: Selecting an adaptive workforce. (C. S. Burke, L. G. Pierce & E. Salas ed.). Oxford; UK: Elsevier Ltd.

Qureshi, Najam, Khan, M. Z., Nawaz, A., & Shah, B. (2014). Issues and Prospects of e-health in Pakistan. Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences, 1, 31-52.

Qureshi, Q. A., Shah, D. B., Nawaz, D. A., Khan, I., Waseem, M., & Muhammad, D. F. (2014). E-Health in Pakistan: Issues and Prospects. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 4(17), 106-115.

Reeves, M., & Deimler, M. (2011, July–August). Adaptability: The New Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Review.

Rhodes, B., Short, A., & Shaben, T. (2017). Effectiveness of Training Strategies That Support Informatics Competency Development in Healthcare Professionals: Health Professionals’ Education in the Age of Clinical Information Systems, Mobile Computing, and Social Networks.Elsevier Inc.

Rigby, M. J. (2019). Ethical Dimensions of Using Artificial Intelligence in Health Care. AMA Journal of Ethics, 21(2), E121-124.

Rysavy, M. (2013 ). Evidence-based medicine: a science of uncertainty and an art of probability. Virtual Mentor, 15(1), 4-8.

Safi, S., Thiessen, T., & Schmailzl, K. J. (2018). Acceptance and Resistance of New Digital Technologies in Medicine: Qualitative Study. JMIR research protocols, 7(12), e11072.

Şahin, F., & Gürbüz, S. (2014). Cultural intelligence as a predictor of individuals’ adaptive performance: A study in a multicultural environment. International Area Studies Review, 17(4), 394-413.

Shahzad, K. (2018, NOVEMBER 17). Boosting Pakistan with Artificial Intelligence. Daily Times.

Shoss, M. K., Witt, L. A., & Vera, D. (2011). When does adaptive performance lead to higher task performance? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(7), 910-924.

Sraku-Lartey, M., Acquah, S. B., Samar, S. B., & Djagbletey, G. D. (2017). Digitization of indigenous knowledge on forest foods and medicines. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 43(2), 187-197.

Ramzan, S., Danish, R. Q., & Ali, H. (2016). Impact of Organizational Learning on Adaptive Performance: A Dimension-wise study on Chemical Industry of Pakistan South Asian Journal of Banking and Social Sciences, 02(01), 66-82.

Sonnentag, S., Volmer, J., & Spychala, A. (2008). Job performance: Micro Approaches (Vol. 1). Los Angeles: SAGE.

Sony, M., & Mekoth, N. (2016). The relationship between emotional intelligence, frontline employee adaptability, job satisfaction, and job performance. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 20-32.

Stokes, C. K., Schneider, T. R., & Lyons, J. B. (2010). Adaptive performance: A criterion problem. Team Performance Management, 16((3/4)), 212-230.

Sutherland, J., & Heuvel, W.J. (2006). Towards an Intelligent Hospital Environment: Adaptive Workflow in the OR of the Future. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Hawaii.

Tabiu, A., Pangil, F., & Othman, S. Z. (2018). Does Training, Job Autonomy, and Career Planning Predict Employees’ Adaptive Performance? Global Business Review, 21(3), 1-12.

Ten Cate, T. J. O., Snell, L., & Carraccio, C. (2010). Medical competence: the interplay between individual ability and the health care environment. Medical teacher, 32(8), 669-675.

Thimbleby, H. (2013). Technology and the future of healthcare. Journal of public health research, 2(3), e28.

Ventola, C. L. (2014). Mobile devices and apps for health care professionals: uses and benefits. P & T: a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management, 39(5), 356-364.

Vuori, V., Helander, N., & Okkonen, J. (2018). Digitalization in knowledge work: the dream of enhanced performance. Cognition, Technology & Work, 1-16.

Writer, S. (2017 18 May). Preparing Healthcare Workforce For Tech Advancements. Bold Business. Retrieved from


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Sarhad Journal of Management Sciences by Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at