Rehmatullah Khan, Zia ur Rehman, Mian Shakeel Ahmed, Asim Rahman


The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of employee empowerment on the performance of faculty members at Hazara University. In this regard survey approach was used and data was collected through self-administered questionnaires. Out of total population of 490 faculty members, 450 were selected as a sample and questionnaires were distributed among them out of which 360 were received back. The findings of the study revealed that trust, reward and communication have a statistically significant and positive effect on employee performance. Additionally, knowledge has a negative relationship with employee performance but it is statistically in significant.


Employee empowerment, rewards, trust, knowledge, communication,

Full Text:




Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422-436.

Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 267-299.

Awamley, N. (2013). Enhancing Employees Performance via Empowerment: A Field Survey. Asian Journal of Business Management, 5(3), 313-319.

Bishop, J. (1987). The recognition & Reward of Employee Performance. Journal of Labor Economics, 5 (4), 36-56.

Carraher, S. M., Whitney G. J., & Buckley, M. R. (2006).Compensation satisfaction in the Baltics and the USA. Baltic Journal of Management, 1(1), 7-23.

Carter, J.D.T. (2009). Managers empowering Employees. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 1(2), 39-44.

Chen, J., Reilly, R. R., & Lynn, G. S. (2005). Team empowerment, uncertainty, and performance in new product development. Institute for the Study of Business Markets Working paper, 14.

Chow, I.H., Lo, T. W., Sha, Z., Hong, J. (2006). The impact of developmental experience, empowerment, and organizational support on catering service staff performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25, 478–495.

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471- 482.

Delaney, J. T., & Huselid, M. A. (1996). The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 949-969.

Dokko, G., Wilk, S. L., & Rothbard, N. P. (2009). Unpacking prior experience: How career history affects job performance. Organization Science, 20(1), 51-68.

Ellis, K. & Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2001). Trust in Top Management and Immediate Supervisor: The Relationship to Satisfaction, Perceived Organizational Effectiveness, and Information Receiving. Communication Quarterly, 49(4), 382-398.

Findikli, M.A., Gulden, A., & Semercioz, F. (2010). Subordinate trust in supervisor and organization: Effects on subordinate perceptions of psychological empowerment. International journal of Business and Management Studies, 2(1), 55-67.

Ghani, N. A. A., Bin Raja, T. A. B. S., & Jusoff, K. (2009). The impact of psychological empowerment on lecturers’ innovative behaviour in Malaysian private higher education institutions. Canadian Social Science, 5(4), 54-62.

Gilaninia, S. (2011). Study of Effective Factors on Customers Trust in Electronic Banking Services (Case study: Melli Bank in Ardabill City). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 8(3), 472-478.

Goris, J.R., Vaught B.C. & Pettit, J.D. (2000). Effects of communication direction on job performance and satisfaction: A moderated regression analysis. Journal of Business Communication, 37(4), 348-68.

Gunbayi I. (2009). Academic staff's perceptions on stressors originating from interpersonal relations at work setting: A Case Study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,1(1), 50-60.

Hasan S. & Thamizhmanii, S. (2010). A review on an employee empowerment in TQM practice. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 39(2), 204-210.

Hatton, C., Emerson, E., Rivers, M., Mason, H., Mason, L., & Swarbrick, R. (1999). Factors associated with staff stress and work satisfaction in services for people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 43, 253–267.

Holtzhausen, D. (2002). The effect of divisionalised and decentralized organizational structure on a formal internal communication function in a South African organization. Journal of Communication Management, 6(4), 323-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13632540210807152

Indradevi, R. (2012). The Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Job Performance and Job satisfaction in Indian software Companies. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies, 2(4), 36-46.

Khan, M.T., Saboor, K., Ahmed, N., & Ikram, A. (2011). Connotation of employees’ empowerment - Emerging challenges. European Journal of Social Sciences, 22(4), 556-564.

Kirkman, B. L., Rosen, B., Tesluk, P. E., & Gibson, C. B. (2004). The impact of team empowerment on virtual team performance: The moderating role of face-to-face interaction. Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 175-192.

Lawler, E.E., III. (2003). Reward practices and performance management system effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 32(4), 396-404.

Lee, M., & Koh, J. (2001). Is empowerment really a new concept? International Journal of Human Resource, 12(4), 684–695.

Lewicki, J. R., Tomlinson, E. C. & Gillespie, N. (2006). Models of Interpersonal Trust Development: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Evidence, and Future Directions. Journal of Management, 32(6), 991-1022.

Light, J. N. (2004). The relationships and effects of employee involvement, employee empowerment, and employee satisfaction by job-type in a large manufacturing environment. Diss. Capella University.

Markman, G. D., & Baron, R. A. (2003). Person–entrepreneurship fit: why some people are more successful as entrepreneurs than others. Human resource management review, 13(2), 281-301.

Mayfield, J., Mayfield, M., & Sharbrough, W. C. (2015). Strategic Vision and Values in Top Leaders’ Communications: Motivating Language at a Higher Level. International Journal of Business Communication, 52(1), 97-121.

Miner, J. B. (2003). The rated importance, scientific validity and practical usefulness of organizational behavior theories: A quantitative review. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2, 250–268.

NikKamariah, N.M. (1997). The Determinants of Salespersons Performance, Doctoral Thesis, Aston University, UK.

Nkebem, E.N (2010). In-service training and job performance of librarians in university libraries in south zone Nigeria. Global Journal of Education Research, 8,(1&2).

Nwankwo, S., & Richardson, B. (1996). Quality Management through visionary leadership. Managing Service Quality, 6(4), 44-47.

Pfeffer, J. (1998). Seven practices of successful organizations. California Management Review, 40, 96–124.

Powell, T. C. (1995). Total quality management as competitive advantage: A review and empirical study. Strategic Management Journal, 16, 15–37. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250160105

Roscoe, J.T. (1975). Fundamental research statistics for behavioral sciences, (2nd ed).New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S. & Camerer, C. (1998). Not So Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 393-404.

Salazar, J., Pfaffenberg, C., & Salazar, L. (2006). Locus of Control vs. Employee Empowerment and the Relationship with Hotel Managers' Job Satisfaction. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 5(1).

Samad, S. (2007). Social Structural Characteristics and Employee Empowerment: The Role of Proactive Personality, International Review of Businesses, 4, 254-264.

Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. The art and practice of learning organization. New York: Doubleday.

Sergio, R., Salvador, R., & Jose, L. M. (2002). The effects of sales training on sales force activity. European Journal of Marketing, 36, 1344-1366.

Steinecke, C. (1993). The federal total quality management handbook. Employee involvement and quality management in the federal government. Washington D.C, U.S Government Printing Press.

Sutherland, R., Bruin, G. P. D., & Crous, F. (2007). The Relation between Conscientiousness, Empowerment and Performance. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 5 (2), 60-67.

Thomas, K. W. & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An interpretive model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15, 666-681.

Vandenberg, R. (1996). Examining the influence of employee involvement process on organizational effectiveness: A look at the insurance industry. Ahen ,GA: Life Office Management Association inc.

Wuensch, K. L. (2005). What is a Likert Scale and How Do You Pronounce Likert? East Carolina University.

Yao, Q., Chen, R., & Cai, G. (2013). How internal marketing can cultivate psychological empowerment and enhance employee performance. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(4), 529-537.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Sarhad Journal of Management Sciences by Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at suit.edu.pk