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EFFECT OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHICS ON EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING, JOB STRESS AND TURNOVER INTENTION= =

Maaz-ud-Din, MS Scholar, IBMS, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan Email:maazyous= afzai12@gmail.com

Saad Farooq, Lecturer IBMS, The University of Agricultur= e, Peshawar-Pakistan Email:sfq201@gmail.com=

 

 


<= span style=3D'mso-bookmark:_Toc311925837'>Abstract. This study is focused on to investigate the effe= cts of Islamic work ethics on employee well-being, job stress and turnover intention. Adopted questionnaire was used to collect data, from 201 Governm= ent School teachers of Peshawar District, Pakistan. Simple linear regression model was used to identify the effects of Islamic = work ethic on employee well-being, job stress and turnover intention. Results show that Islamic work ethics h= as significant effect on employee well-being whereas insignificant effect on turnover intention and job stress. This paper also provides basic informati= on regarding the amount of work carried on Islamic work ethics in business organizations of Pakistan mainly in educati= on sector of Peshawar District, Pakistan. <= /o:p>

Key words: Turno= ver intention, Islamic work ethics, employee well-being, Job stress.=

Intr= oduction=

The term ethics was defined John= son (1984) as the science of conduct and behavior. In the field of ethics there= are different schools of thoughts. One important school of thoughts is Islamic = work ethics while second important is that of protestant work ethics. According = to Weber (1958) in the majority of European countries economy protestant work ethics has been gained high importance in the expansion of capitalism. Evidently Weber has connected the success that accomplished by most European states to religious aspects (Yousef, 2000). He also suggests that Protestant work ethics mostly hold to promote the potency of free enterprise which is totally grounded over the values that economic gains and effort are focus to realize personal and spiritual achievement (Kidron, 1978; Mirels & Garr= ett, 1971).

Islamic work ethics represents t= he mixture of principles or beliefs which are based on the injunctions of the Quran Majeed, the recorded sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.A.W) and ha= rd work of the people involved (Ali & Al-Owaihan 2008; Rice, 1999). Shakil, (2011) contends that Islamic work ethics encompasses economic, social and ethical scope. In every part of an individual’s life, that includes her/his economic, business and daily life, one must replicate the Islamic work ethi= cs. Islamic work ethics is the way that shape and also affects the contribution= and participation of workers in their working place (Ali, 2008). Employees’ behavior toward their work and also organization they work for can affect w= ork ethics (Glazer, et al., 2004). The secular ethical or Western standards, Islamic moral and moral system principles are completely unrelated from one another. The Western secular system understand system of ethics that were b= rief also narrow minded usually these models projected a structure of ethics div= ided from religion the total structure were founded on the values of their creat= ors . Beekun (2005) explain IWE completely center of attention on the associati= on of human to his Lord. Yousef (2001) says the similarity between in both the systems are moral which is focus on avoid unprincipled ways of wealth collection ,creativity and assurance, loyalty to work, collaboration and competitiveness at the place of work and keep away from un-ethical source  of wealth collection.<= /o:p>

Research Question

What is the effect of Islamic wo= rk ethics on employee well-being, job stress and turnover intention?<= /o:p>

Theoretical Model

Islamic work ethics

Turnover Intentio= n

Job Stress=

Employee Well-bei= ng

Independent Variable

Dependent Variabl= es

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework of the Research

&= nbsp;

 

 

 

 

 


Hypotheses

= H1: There is a significant effect of Islamic work ethics on employee well-being=

= H2: There is a significant effect of Islamic work ethics on turnover intention.=

= H3: There is a significant effect of Islamic work Ethics on Job Stress.<= o:p>

Lite= rature Review: Islamic Work Ethic=

Quran Pak supports obtaining of technology and skills and discourages idleness. IWE highlight consultation and collaboration at place of work and devotion to w= ork as a good quality. Islamic work ethics is totally based on intentions not j= ust on results (Ali, 1988). Islamic work ethics is the way of gaudiness which inspiration employees how to get involved and manage in their place of work= .


 

Islamic Work Ethics and Job Stress

Long (1995) says that within the working surroundings stress is race between the source= of demand and individual. Yousaf, (2000 & 2001) has two research studies on Islamic work ethics simultaneously. Ali, (1992, 1988) and (Rehman et al., 2= 006) research also vital on stress level and improving job satisfaction in place= of work. Yousaf (2001) and Rehman et al., (2006) in conformity with Furnham (1= 984, 1991) have claimed so as to there is a job happiness and superior job declaration which results in a most happy worker in his research on Islamic work ethics. Stress and depression are insignificant associated with religi= on, (Fehring et al., 1987). Koenig et al., (2004) suggested that energetic work= ers always tend to work high with less antagonism and great expectations. Management should realize the concept of work ethics and speed up the development growth and try to attract the employees together physically and spiritually (Whittington & Diddams, 2003).

Islamic Work Ethics and Turnover intention<= /span>=

Turnover in= tention of worker has great impact on organization working. Islamic work ethics research suggests, that workers accepting Islamic work ethics have lesser turnover rate (Shakil, 2011). Hence, it is easy to conclude that s= uch workers have been found more happy, highly involved in job. Rokhman (2010) = says IWE presented insignificant association with intention to leave.=

Rokhman (20= 10) suggested that those workers who chase Islamic work ethics and contain powe= rful belief on Islam and all at once they express job satisfaction, low turnover intention, more managerial obligation are found. The most important parts of ethical values and Muslims attitude are Islamic work ethics; therefore staf= fs that are more level in IWE are higher job participation, job happiness and = intention to leave.

Islamic Work Ethics and Employee Well-being= =

About justifiable wages to help the workforces the Holy Prophet has said a lot ab= out work ethics. He says: before their sweat dries pay wages to your workers. A= li, (1988) claimed that rise your employee’s moral and due to this, it will off= er them authority to right their outcome, and will not made them unneeded and = not to be unfaithful to the assets at hands and it is a guarantee to reject your power, or deceive the expectation. He also mentions extension of aliments w= hich supports them to keep away from poverty to the fact of education. According= to Ahmad, (1971) the aim of the Islamic structure of business are not mainly capital oriented, consequently are founded on the ideas of achieving a good life and human gladness.

Methodology: Population and Sampling technique:<= o:p>

In District Peshawar, 9960 Government school teachers are working, therefore t= he population of our study is 9960. Through adopted structure questionnaires t= he data were collected from 201 Teachers of the subject schools in District Peshawar, Pakistan. According to Sekran (2003) for the population of this magnitude there should be 370 respondents. Therefore, we distribute 400 questionnaires in the target population. The return rate of questionnaires = was 50.25%.

 <= /span>

Analysis and Results

In the current study 201 respondents were selected for data collection, for this purpose we divided all respondents in classification as gender, age, education and experiences, among these respondents 61 were fem= ale respondents (30.34%), and 140 respondents were male(70%). Mostly 30-40 years respondents group were in majority. Only 1% respondents having intermediate, respondents having Bachelor degrees were about 35.8%, likewise respondents having Master and M.Phil were (56.5%) and (4%) respectively. Similarly there were high experienced teachers among all the staffs/ teachers so respondents having 1-10 years experienced are (56.5%) 21-30 years experienced were held only (15%) and 11-20 teachers were about (28.3%) among all these teachers o= nly one respondent got experienced more than 30 years. The demographics characteristics are as fol= low in table no table (i).

Table 1  = Demographic of Respondents

Description<= /span>

Frequency

Pe= rcentage %

Gender   Ma= le

Female

Total=

140

61=

201

70=

30.34

100%

Age

20-30

31-40

41-50

51-60

To= tal

 

65

74

53

9

20= 1

 

32.3

32.3

26.5

4.5

100

Qualification

        =       Intermediate

Ba= chelor

        =        Master

        =        M.Phil

To= tal

 

2

72

119

8

201

 

1.0

35.8

59.5

4.0

100

Ex= perience

1-10

11-20

21-30

31-40=

 

113

57

30

1

 

56.5

28.3

15.0

0.5

To= tal

201

100

Table 2  = Reliability Statistics

No= of Variables

It= ems

Al= pha Score

Re= liability

Islamic work ethics

17=

0.65

Reliable

Job stress

13=

0.81

Reliable

Turnover intention

3

0.71

Reliable

Employee well-being<= /span>

18

0.60

Reliable

Standard: Hair et al (2003).

 <= /span>

Measurements

17 I= tems scale of Islamic work ethics was used and this scale was developed by Ali (1988). Five Likert scale was intended for responses; which range from stro= ngly disagree to strongly agree. Similarly for job stress (13) items scale was u= sed which was developed by Parker and Decottis, (1983).  Horner and Hollingsworth (1978) uses (3) items scale for turnover intention, like wise Ryffs (1995) developed (18) Employee well-being items scale.

Tabl= e 2 shows means of all variables i.e., Islamic Work Ethics means (3.75), job St= ress means (3.28) Employee Wellbeing means (3.57) and turnover intention means w= ere (2.56). IWE means and EWB were high which described that employees are high= ly motivated and happy. Similarly Job stress and Turnover intention means were low, which describe that staffs have no stress and are not willing to leave their current organization.

Table 3 Means of all variables

No of variables    =                              

No= of items

Me= ans

Islamic work ethics                    

17=

3.75

Employee well-being

18

3.57

Turnover intention

3

2.56

Job stress

13

3.28

Regr= ession Analysis=

Tabl= e 3 explains that (1.4%) variations occur in the dependent variable. Y =3D Job = Stress was described by independent variable. X =3D Islamic Work Ethics. The overa= ll model was insignificant as P-value is greater than 0.001, which is (.097).Similarly explains that (1.7%) variations occur in the dependent variable. Y =3D Turnover Intention was described by independent variable. X= =3D Islamic Work Ethics. The overall model was Insignificant as P-value is grea= ter than 0.001, which is (.064). Also table 3 shows that (18%) variations occur= in the dependent Variable. Y =3D Employee wellbeing was described by Independe= nt Variable, X =3D Islamic Work Ethics. The model was significant as P-value w= as less than 0.001, which is .000.


 

Tabl= e 4  Regression Analysis=

Mo= del

R

R square

Adjusted R square

F<= /span>

St= andard error

&#= 914;

Si= g

1<= /p>

.118a

.014

.009

2.775

.701

.118

.097**

2<= /p>

.131a

.017

.012

3.476

1.06

.131

.064**

3

.427a

.183

.178

44.213

.374

.427

.000***

P<0.10; **P<0.001***

a.&n= bsp;       Dependent Variable: Job stress

b.&n= bsp;       Dependent Variable: Turnover Intention

c.&n= bsp;       Depe= ndent Variable : Employee well-being

Disc= ussion

The = main idea of this research is to examine the effects of Islamic work ethics on employee well-being, turnover intention and job Stress. 401questionnaireswe= re divided amongst different government schools Teachers of District Peshawar; which results shows that employees are satisfied due to high level of Islam= ic work ethics also shows by their means. Likewise employee well-being score w= ere also high, as shown by teachers highly satisfied and happy from their from current job, similarly job stress and turn over intention aggregate means w= ere low, which shows that teachers have no turnover intention and no stress at workplace due to Islamic work ethics. All the hypotheses were supported by prior researches of Rokhman (2010); Shakil (2011) and Ajmal (2014).

Conclusion<= span style=3D'mso-bookmark:_Toc311884174'>

This study investigated the effect of Islamic wo= rk ethics on employee well-being, job stress and turnover intention. Finding of the study suggested that Islamic work ethics is very necessary for organization. When an organization follows Islamic work ethics, their emplo= yees will highly be motivated and loyal towards organization. Similarly Islamic = work ethics also leads towards less stress and low turnover intention.

This study provides some important recommendatio= ns for managers and academicians. For managers it is recommended that they should develop such an environment where employees can follows Islamic work ethics= , which ultimately will result motivation and loyalty towards organization. While f= or academicians it is recommended to study other HR practices with Islamic work ethics in order to get insight and credible results.

 <= /span>


 <= /span>

References

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157 | Vol. II, Issue II (ISSN No. 2414-2336)<= /o:p>

 

 

 

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ISSN: 2414-2336