The Effect of Training and Development Practices on Employees Organizational Commitment among the Employees in Private Health Care Sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Fayaz Ali Shah*, Jawad Hussain**& Wali Rahman***


*Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar. Email:


**Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, University of Malakand. Email:


***Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Sarhad University of Science & IT, Peshawar. Email:


Abstract. This study examined the relationship between training and development practices, and organizational commitment for a sample of employees working in private healthcare sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results showed that training and development practices were positively related to organizational commitment. To examine this relationship, a survey was conducted on 134 employees working in private healthcare sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, selected randomly. Correlation and regression analysis techniques were used to analyze the relationship of training and development practices and organizational commitment. The results of the study showed that organizational commitment of private healthcare sector employees were dependent on the training and development practices.

Key words: Training and development practices, organizational commitment, healthcare sector, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa



Healthcare is an essential service and an effective healthcare system is critical for the health and well-being of the community (Yusoff, Shah, Ali, & Bakar, 2013). New demands placed on employees in health care related jobs are occurring at a time when the entire industry is dealing with repeated reform, restructuring, and reorganization driven at national, regional, and organizational levels. Job stress, burnout, and turnover continue to be issues of great concern to health care managers faced with ongoing and future projected staff shortages (Wahab, Hussain, Zadeh, Shah, & Hussain, 2014). This is increasing the value of loyal and committed employees able to deliver health care in ever more demanding conditions (Shumaila, Aslam, Sadaqa, Maqsood, & Nazir, 2012). Training is one of the most important investments because it enhances the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior of employees. Training and development as being able to not only develop skill and knowledge for improved job performance but also to foster and contribute to desired work-place attitudes and behaviors of employees (Franco, Bennett, & Kanfer, 2002). Among the many work-place attitudes studied the construct of organizational commitment is singled out as an increasingly valued work-related attitude in health care settings (Shumaila, et al., 2012).

Recently, there has been a significant interest among both academics and management practitioners in the use of training and development practices within the healthcare sector across many developed countries (Stanton, Young, Bartram, & Leggat, 2010). Studies from the USA, the UK and Australia have revealed strong links between human resource development practices and improved organizational outcomes including reduced patient mortality and improved quality of patient care (Silber, et al., 2002; Fraser, et al., 2007; West, et al., 2002).

However, in many developing countries and especially in Pakistan relatively little is known about the training and development practices, particularly within an essential service such as the healthcare sector (Ahmad, et al., 2013).


Problem Statement

The success of organizations in this modern business scenario depends on the quality of the workforce that runs the day to day affairs of the organizations (Rahman, 2012). The process of training and development of employees for both private and public companies has been a matter of concern to many and needs attention (Wahab, et al., 2014). Managing people is a great challenge both at strategic or even organizational levels. Thus, human resources are well managed and developed in alignment with the organizational goals and strategies (Yusoff, et al., 2013). It has been examined that for any organization to achieve its stated objectives and goals there is the need for management to put in place training and development policies or strategies that will enhance employees organizational commitment and will help them to achievement organizational objectives (Shumaila, et al., 2012). Different from physical and financial investments, investment in training brings a distinct advantage to organizations because training enhances organizational performance (Wahab, et al., 2014) . It does this through increasing the skills, motivation and knowledge of employees. Thus, the intellectual capital of organizations is increased. Moreover, it is argued that training within organizations creates a resource that is more valuable than any other, that is, committed employees (Bulut & Culha, 2010).

Despite rising attention to delivery of healthcare services in Pakistan, little attention has been paid to the role of human resource management especially training and development which can transform health workers into a committed, motivated, and supported workforce capable of improving healthcare services and saving lives. Lack of attention towards effective training and development strategy in health sector is one of the main factor standing between success and failure in Pakistan (Khan, et al., 2012).

Currently, in Pakistan the healthcare system comprises two tiers: public sector healthcare and private sector healthcare. Public sector healthcare is usually provided by the government through national healthcare systems while private healthcare is provided through for profit hospitals and self-employed practitioners. Healthcare in Pakistan is administered mainly in the private sector which accounts for approximately 80% of all outpatient visits. Total sixteen approved teaching hospitals are working in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), out of which eight are public sector teaching hospitals while eight are private sector teaching hospitals (Government of Pakistan, 2011).


Research Objectives

The main objectives of this study is to assess the relationship between training and development practices and organizational commitment and also to examine the impact of training and development practices on organizational commitment among the employees working in private healthcare sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

In this paper, the researchers set out to identify the relationship between training and development practices and organizational commitment, as there is no conclusive evidence available which shows that what can increase an employees commitment to the organization (Haleblian & Finkelstein, 1999; Freese, et al., 1998; Asma, et al., 2012).

This paper contributes to the human resource management and hospital management literature in a number of ways. First, it is one of the first comprehensive research studies conducted on behavioral outcomes of training and development practices in private healthcare sector in Pakistan and especially in KPK. Second, the researchers have used multi-level respondents to drill down and unpack the research problem. Finally, this paper also will benefit stakeholders in healthcare sector to identify and understand critical issues in training and development and its relationship with employees commitment.


Theoretical Framework

Mayer and Herscovitch (2001) reported that employee commitment is an obliging force that gives direction to behavior i.e. restricts an employees freedom and binds him/her to designed course of action. McElroy (2001) opines that when an organization makes investment in trainings, it signals that the organization is committed to the development of its employees. Consequently, it creates a reputation for valuing and developing the employees. This not only attracts the best mind in the market but also enhance the commitment level of the existing employees. Scarpello, Ledvinka, and Bergmann (1995) believe that majority of the employees mostly want career success.

It shows that training and development practices affect employees attitudes and behavior in organizational settings. Figure1 demonstrates the proposed theoretical association among the constructs of the study.





Figure1: Conceptual framework

Hypotheses of the Study

The following two main hypotheses were formulated for this study.

HI: Training and development practices are positively associated with employees organizational commitment.

H2: Training and development practices affect employees organizational commitment.



The population for the study consists of all the employees working in the eight private teaching hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two hundred questionnaires were physically distributed to employees of all levels working in private hospitals in KPK, Pakistan. One hundred and thirty eight were returned showing a percentage of sixty nine (69) within two months after two reminders. Four (04) questionnaires were dropped due to incompleteness. The remaining one hundred and thirty four (134) questionnaires were used for research study.

Training and development practices were measure through five items developed by Rahman (2012). For organizational commitment, a short form of five items of the organizational commitment scale developed by Meyer, et al. (1990), was used. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18 Version) was used for data analysis of this study.


Literature Review

Traditionally the term human resource management means the practices, formal policies and overarching philosophies whereby an organisations employees are attached, deployed, retained, rewarded, developed and nurtured (Jackson & Schuler, 1995).

Many studies support the view that training and development practices should be linked in appropriate ways with wide human resource management practices in order to make its due organisational contributions (Rahman, 2012) . There is now a convincing weight of evidence that training and development practices have a crucial part to play in raising the skills and commitment level of employees needed by high-performing organisations. But, this activity needs to be supported by wider Human resource practices and to link with organisational goals (Tsui & Wu, 2005).

Harrison (2002) has mentioned eight stages process for training and development (establish needs, agree on purpose and objectives for the learning event, identify profile of intended learning population, agree on strategy and delivery of the learning event, select learner cohort and produce detailed specification for the learning event, finalise strategy and design the learning event, deliver the learning event and monitor and evaluate the learning event) to achieve both behavioural and structural outcomes for organization.

According to Bendell (2006), top managers need to make and describe such strategies that create an environment where everyone is encouraged to contribute ideas to improve their own and other peoples commitment. While making and describing strategies the top managers need to recognise the different needs of people and to make sure everyone has appropriate and fair access to the support they need and there is equality of opportunity for people to learn and develop which will positively affect their commitment and will improve their performance. He emphasises the importance of senior management commitment, that management in setting the strategy for training and development should emphasis on managers commitment, because these managers influence the middle and lower level employees commitment.

He further suggests that to increase the outcomes of the organizations investment for improving employees commitment and subsequently performance of the organisation, top managers can describe the organisations overall investment of time, money and resources in training and development and can provide how their investment in people is used to enhance their commitment towards the organisation. Line managers can give examples how training and development has affected their teams commitment. Similarly, employee can give examples of how training and development have affected their individual commitment (Bendell, 2006).

Rahman (2012) describes organizational commitment is a psychological state that affects an individuals attachment to the organization. An employee is termed committed when he/she maintains membership in a certain organization through thick and thin. This employee works with sincerity and devotion and exploits all his/her potentials to the maximum level, takes care of the organizations assets and, above all, shares company goals (Meyer & Allen, 1997). Commitment works as a stabilizing force and gives meaning and direction to behavior (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). The question is how an employees commitment be won? There is a rationale answer to this question: when an organization happens to satisfy an employees expectations.

An employees needs and desires can be many and diverse. Though it is impossible to satisfy them all, organizations seriousness in employees interests is always reciprocated. When management expresses its commitment to the training and development needs of an employee, it helps the employees to raise their morale and encourages their commitment to the organization. Therefore, realizing an employees development needs is an attempt to affect his organizational commitment (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001).


Analysis and Results

The quantitative tools applied to evaluate the data were Pearsons correlation and regression analysis by using SPSS. Correlation analysis has been performed to know about the strength of the relationship between the variables. This study has established a linear relationship between training and development and organizational commitment. Regression analysis has been used to assess the cause and effect relationship between training and development and organizational commitment.


Table 1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents




















Above 45



























01 to 05



06 to 10



11 to 15



Above 15







Table.2: Reliability Statistics


Cronbach Alpha

Training and Development


Organizational Commitment



Correlation Analysis

The appropriate quantitative technique Pearsons correlation is used to analyze the data. Pearsons correlation is a popular and suitable way of assessing linear association between variables. Pearson Coefficient measures the level of association between different considered variables. Correlation co-efficient describes the strength of the relationship between the variables. This research has established a linear relationship between training and development and organizational commitment. The relationship between training and development was found significant at the level of 0.433 percent. So, the result supported H1 that predicted that training and development practices are significantly related to organizational commitment among the employees working in private healthcare in KPK, Pakistan. In other words, employees commitment to their organization increases with increased opportunities of training and development and vice versa.


Table.3: Correlation between Training & Development and Org. Commitment


T & D


T & D

Pearson Correlation




Pearson Correlation



**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


Regression Analysis

Simple regression analysis was used to assess how well training and development practices predict organizational commitment. Table 6 shown the value of F=30.518 which was statistically significant. The adjusted R2 was 0.18, which indicates that 18 percent of variance in organizational commitment could be due to training and development practices. The regression analysis depicted and explained that training and development significantly and positively contributes in employee organizational commitment.

Table 4 Coefficients


Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients




Std. Error


1 (Constant)












Independent Variable T&D; Dependent Variable: OC

Table.5: Analysis of Variance


Sum of Squares


Mean Square





















a. Predictors: (Constant), Training and Development

b. Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment


Discussion and Conclusion

Based on the results, this study finds that training and development practices have a positive impact on organizational commitment among the employees working in private healthcare sector in KPK, Pakistan. The better training and development opportunities given to employee will increase their commitment towards their organizations. Employee training and development practices were positively associated with organizational commitment. Organizational commitment is a psychological state that affects an employee's relationship with the organization, and accounts for his/her decision to continue or discontinue membership in the organization (Rahman, 2012). Results of the study also support the previous researches (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). An employee has diverse desires in employment perspectives. And it is simply not possible to address them all; nonetheless, organizations seriousness in employees interests is always reciprocated. When management expresses its commitment to the training and development of their employees career needs, it gives an impression to the employees that they are valued and are considered as a part of the organization. This helps the employees in raising their morale and engenders their commitment to the organization. Therefore, realizing an employees training and development needs is an attempt to affect his/her organizational commitment.


Future Research

Base on the results of this study the researchers suggest that, since investment in employee training and development may differ from industry to industry and from country to country, so, replication of this study in different countries and industries may assist with the generalizability of the results and at the same time, it may also be helpful in understanding the cross-national similarities or differences in the relationships examined in this study. Moreover the sample size may be increased by getting data from public healthcare sector.




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