Impact of Socialization on Organizational Commitment of Employees:  A Case Study of Private Degree Colleges in Nowshehra, District, KPK

Saqib Shahzad, Demonstrator, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan

PhD-Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar

Email: saqibshahzad26@gmail.com

 

Shahzad Khan, Assistant professor, University of Haripur, Haripur

 

Dr. Fayyaz Ali Shah, Assistant Professor, Islamia College University Peshawar. Email: akhoon47@yahoo.com

 

Abstract

Implementations of HR practices carry a significant weightage towards organization’s success. The study was focused to find out the impact of socialization process on organizational commitment of employees working in private degree colleges. 200 hundred questionnaires were distributed among the teaching staff of degree colleges using convenient sampling technique. 126 properly filled questionnaires forming a response rate of 63% were analyzed to get meaningful results. The results of the study showed that socialization process was found to have significant impact on organizational commitment of employees.

Key Words:         HR practices, Socialization, Organizational commitment

Introduction

Socialization process starts right after, when an employee apply for a job in an organization. This process in which both employees and organizations are new for each other so they need time and a proper way that they could know each other. So the formal process for this is called Socialization. Socialization is an overview of organization for new comers and focusing on successful outcomes from new employees and suggest practical steps for socialize newcomers (Cable & Thomas, 2006). Work experience has a very little effect in the adjustment of employee in any new organization because it was a whole new environment for employee (Adkins, 1995). Socialization process leads to a healthy environment both for organization and newcomers and also reduces early turnover rates in organization because of adjustment (Saari & Judge, 2004). Socialization process also creates self justification that can shape employee’s future and also improves productivity (Staw, 1980).  Organizational socialization refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders. When an employee gets socialized and get committed with an organization so that is good for an organization to achieve its goals easily. Employees have lots of expectations like, pay, behavior, promotions, rewards, opportunities etc that can influence job satisfaction (Judge & Church, 2000). There are different cultured people in an organization having different views so they are also having different ways for their socialization to get job satisfaction and their commitment with organization.

Research Questions

1.       What are the determinants of socialization process?

2.       Is there any relationship between socialization and organizational commitment?

 

Objectives of the Study

Following are the objectives of the study.

·         To study determinants of socialization.

·         To explore the impact of socialization on organizational commitment.

 

Significance of the Study

Among the HR practices socialization is considered as one of the significant factor that motivates employees to adjust quickly and in a good manner in the organization. Initially the more informal interaction of new inductees with the current members of the organization the more it is easier for the inductee to adapt to the environment. This study carries importance of socialization for both employee and employer. Employers will have to carry a formal socialization process for new employees so that they can be productive and helps to achieve their goals and objectives by dedicated involvement having no hesitation. Newcomers compare their values from organizational values before entering the organization to ensure the satisfaction and commitment of the job.

 

Literature Review

Socialization is a process in which an individual gain knowledge, skills, norms, values to enter in a new group of community, it is the combination of expectations and rules through which a newcomers adjust themselves in a new environment and make a commitment with organization to accept their norms and values and follow the rules and regulations positively integrating into a new group of people.  As far concern to organization needs to provide an effective orientation to newly hired employees to help in their socialization (Adkins, 1995). Socialization process starts right after the selection of an employee, organization needs their employee to know about their organization and work in an environment by which both company and employee satisfy. Socialization for newly hired employees is good for relationship between organization and employees and moreover, formal and collective socialization tactics helps remove uncertainty in early work experiences (Ashforth & Saks, 1996). Socialization refers to “the process by which an individual acquires the attitude, behavior, and knowledge needed to participate as an organizational member” (Cable & parsons, 2001). Researchers called it person-organization fit or the well-suited between person and organization they are employed; it is a key to maintaining a flexible and devoted workforce that is vital in a competitive business environment and a stiff labor market.  There are several factors effecting job satisfaction and employee commitment. Commitment is a psychological state that ties an individual to the organization. It refers to the ‘likelihood that an individual will stick to the organization, feel psychologically attached to it, whether the job is satisfying or not’. Organization commitment is an attitudinal predictor of employees’ behavior and intentions (Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982).  Affective commitment is defined as the affective and emotional attachment of an individual with the organization and made a strong involvement and accepts the membership of the organization (Meyer & Allen, 1990). Affective commitment has been most powerfully linked to optimistic job-related behaviors (presence, organizational residency behavior) (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). Meyer et al. (2002) highlighted through meta-analysis, the real predecessors, partners and results of authoritative responsibility. Adeyemo (2000) found a productive and positive relationship amongst training and authoritative duty. As per Bhatla (2011) ingested on the essential for such representatives and how their organization can extend the development and work viability of the business all in all. Also roused on the undertakings played by the HR executives to grow laborer Commitment for a general public's being. The investigation of Mangundjaya (2012) that representative drawing in and worker conferring can give a higher result on execution and in addition at work fulfillment. What's more, there is likewise a positive connection between hierarchical responsibilities.

 

H1: Socialization practice has a significant impact on organizational commitment of employees.

 

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

 

 

Socialization

·      Orientation

·      Relationship with old employees

·      Working Environment

Organizational Commitment

·         Affective Commitment

·         Normative Commitment

·         Continuous Commitment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Research Methodology

The study was explanatory in nature. The population of the study was the private degree colleges in Nowshehra district. All the teaching staff in these degree colleges formed the target population of the study. A sample size of 200 was selected for data collection. Data was collected through self administered questionnaires using convenient sampling technique. Out of 137 filled questionnaires 11 questionnaires were found defective (improperly filled), so the results are based on 126 properly filled questionnaires. The response rate was 63% excluding the incomplete questionnaires. The research instrument comprised of three sections i.e. Section A consisted of demographic characteristics of respondents i.e. Gender, Age, Qualification etc, Section B included the items related to the socialization socialization and it was measured by three sub variables including Orientation with 7 questions, relation with old employees consisting 6 and working conditions having 6 questions, while Section C consisted of organizational commitment which was measured by three sub variables i.e. 1st including affective commitment having 4 questions,2nd was normative commitment having 5 questions) and 3rd was continuous commitment having 4 questions All responses of the variables were measured by five point Likert scale ranging: 1 for strongly disagree, 2 for disagree, 3 for neutral, 4 for agree and 5 for strongly agree.

Table 1: Reliability Statistics

#

Variable

Cronbach's Alpha

No of items

1

Orientation

0.714

7

2

Relationship with Old Employees

0.781

6

3

Working Environment

0.766

6

4

Affective Commitment

0.801

4

5

Normative Commitment

0.784

5

6

Continuous Commitment

0.809

4

 

Table 1 of reliability statistics shows that for orientation the value of Cronbach’s alpha is .714. It represents that there were 7 items (questions) asked for measuring orientation. Since the Cronbach’s alpha value is greater than .7 it means that the questions asked were highly related and the questionnaire was highly reliable. Similarly the Cronbach’s alpha values for relationship with old employees is 0.781, for working environment α = 0.766, for affective commitment α= 0.801, for normative commitment α= 0.784 and for continuous commitment α=0.809 show that the entire questions to the respective variables were highly related and thus the questionnaire was highly reliable.

 

Table 2 Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

Sig. F Change

1

.429a

.451

.439

.53671

.439

10.126

.001

a. Predictor: (Constant), Socialization

 

The above table 2 of model summary shows that, the value of R=0.429 representing 42.9% positive association between socialization and organizational commitment. The value of Adjusted R square = .439 representing the 43.9% of variance in the organizational commitment has been explained due to variation in socialization. The value of F change is 10.126 with p=.001 (p≤.05) represents that model is statistically highly significant.

 

Table 3   Coefficients

Model

 

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.641

.450

 

3.664

.000

Socialization

.514

.129

.489

3.219

.001

a. Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment

 

The table 3 of coefficients shows that for socialization the value of β=.514 representing that one unit increase in socialization causes 0.514 units increase in organizational commitment. The t-value = 3.219 with significance level=.001 (p≤.05), so hypothesis is accepted i.e. socialization has insignificant effect on organizational commitment.

Conclusion

The aim of the study was to find out the impact of socialization of organizational commitment of employees. The teaching staff in private colleges in district Nowshehra was the target population of the study. The results of the study showed that socialization was found to have a positive influence on the organizational commitment of employees towards organization. The results pointed out towards an important aspect that the success of organization specifically depends upon the proper implementation of HR practices. Proper implementation of organizational policies that can keep employee at ease and well adjusted to the organization may help in increasing their intentions to show higher level of commitment towards organization. This will also help in reducing the costs of organization regarding turnover ratio.

Limitations of the Study

The study was only focused in one district and one city i.e. Nowshehra was targeted. The sample size also served as a limitation. Financial resources in reaching to the masses in the selected area also created hurdles. The study was cross sectional in nature. The variables of the study were also limited. Only private colleges were targeted. lack of time was also a limitation.


 

Further Study

In future the study may be repeated considering that the number of independent variables to be increased for more composite model regarding organizational commitment. In addition to the private degree colleges the public sector degree college may also be included in the study. A comparative is suggested for more in depth results.

 

References

Adkins, C. L. (1995). Previous work experience and organization socialization. Academy of management journals , 38(3), 839-862.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252-276.

Ashforth, B., & Saks, A. (1996). socialization tactics. longitudinal effects of newcomer adjusment , 39, 149-178.

Mangundjaya, W. L. H. (2012). Are organizational commitment and employee engagement important in achieving individual readiness for change? 10(2).

Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-52.

Meyer, J., & Allen, N. (1990). Affective and continous commitment to the organization. Journal of applied pshycology , 75, 710-720

Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee-organizational Linkages. New York: Academic Press.

Saari, L., & Judge, T. (2004). Employee Attitude and Job. New York.

Staw, M. B. (1980). The consequences of turnover, journal of occupational behavior, vol. 1, pp 253-273.

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